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Submitted by Darametmoe on 23 April 2024 Sewing Devices

Sewing can be carried out either manually or by a machine. For hand sewing, the following are required:

1. Needles: These needles come in denominations of a 0 to 12 numbers. Based on the thickness of cloth, the needle number is used.

2. Crewel needle or darn needle: This is used for darning. The front side of the needle is bent.

3. Pins: Pins are used for fixing the pattern on the cloth. They come in different colours.

4. Pin cushion: It is used for keeping pins together.

5. Needle threader: This helps in threading the machine and hand needles.

6. Thimble: This is a cover that protects the finger while hand sewing. It is available in various sizes and is made of plastic or steel.

7. Seam ripper: It has a sharp curved edge for opening and cutting seams. It can also be used for slashing machine work buttonholes. Finishing or Pressing Devices

The following equipment are needed for pressing:

1. Iron: A good brand with after sale services should be chosen. A steam iron with a thermostat regulator is preferred.

2. Ironing board: For ironing clothes, a table or ironing board can be used. An ironing board is 36″ long and 12″ wide. Six inches are left on its right side to keep the iron box. The left side of the board is angular and is suitable for ironing dart edges and sleeve darts while stitching. The table or ironing board should have proper stuffed backing.

3. Sleeve board: It is in the shape of a sleeve. This board is 30″ long and 3/4″ thick. Miscellaneous or General Tools

Often, a few more tools and equipment may be required other than the above-mentioned items, in making the pattern and constructing the garment. These can be termed miscellaneous tools.

1. Sponge: While pressing, a sponge is used to wet the fabric pieces to smooth the surfaces.

2. Water container: A container with water, which will accommodate the sponge, should be selected. While ironing, water is sprinkled to remove wrinkles.

3. Damp cloth: If a steam iron is not available, a damp cloth can be used. Any rectangular absorbable cloth can be chosen for this purpose.

4. Hole maker: It is a sharp-edged instrument with a handle. This is used to make buttonholes.

5. Orange stick: This is a long tool with a pointed edge. This is inserted into the collars or seams to get pointed edges.


2.2.3 Principles of Pattern Drafting

Pattern drafting can be carried out on an ordinary brown sheet paper which is not too thin. To achieve an accurate and precise pattern draft, use of appropriate tools should be practiced, for example, for drawing a straight line a sharp pencil and a ruler have to be used and to draw right angle lines, an ‘L’ square or set square can be utilized. Prior to pattern drafting, it is essential to know the procedures and instructions (Beazley and Bond 2004; ISO 3635 1981; ISO 3636 1977; ISO 3637 1977). The basic principles of pattern drafting are given below.

1. Patterns must be created larger than actual body measurements to permit free body movements, ease of action and comfort in wearing. Normally used ease allowance for various parts of the body are as follows.

a . Bust – 3–5″ (3″ for a tight fitting garment and 5″ for loose fitting one).
b. Waist – 1/2″.
c. Hips – 3–5″.
d. Upper arm – 3–4″.
e. Arm hole depth – 1″.
The ease allowance must be incorporated in the pattern drafting before cutting out the pattern.

2. For a symmetric garment (the right and left sides of the garment panels are similar), the paper pattern could be made only for half front and half back. But for the sleeve part, a full pattern must be made.

3. It is better to draft the basic pattern blocks such as plain bodice, plain sleeve, and plain skirt without including seam allowances. However, while marker planning or keeping the patterns directly on the fabric for cutting, adequate seam allowances have to be ensured between the patterns before cutting. Otherwise, to avoid the risk of cutting without seam allowance, it is better to add seam allowances in the paper pattern itself after completing the draft.

4. The following construction detailed information should be recorded and marked clearly on the pattern after drafting to aid in further processes.

a. Identification mark of every pattern piece by its name (bodice front, bodice back, sleeve, etc.).
b. Number of pattern pieces to be cut with each pattern piece.
c. If seam allowances are not included in the draft, this should be pointed out in the pattern. If it is included, then seam and cutting lines should be clearly drawn on the pattern.
d. Length grain line should be marked in a different colour pencil on every pattern piece.
e. Notches should be provided for easy matching of components while sewing.
f. Center front (CF), as well as center back (CB) lines, should be marked in the block pattern.
g. Fold lines in the pattern should be clearly marked and should be visible to show the location where the material should be folded.
h. Dart and pleat markings, etc. should also be marked clearly on the pattern. Advantages of Paper Pattern

1. A better pattern of the appropriate size manipulated to individual requirements results in a better fit.

2. A pattern made in a thick paper or cardboard shall be maintained for a longer period of time and can be reused several times.

3. By modifying the basic pattern pieces using the flat pattern technique, it is feasible to make patterns for intricate and original designs.

4. A paper pattern of a specific size can be used to produce patterns of other sizes by means of a grading process.

5. The errors that occur during pattern drafting can be corrected in the pattern itself.

6. Patterns can be changed/modified according to the latest fashion trend.